Boilers | Types, Applications, Characteristics

What is a Boiler?

A boiler is a closed vessel which is used to heat a fluid (generally water). Fluid can either be heated or boiled. The output of the boiler (steam or heated water/fluid) is further used according to the requirements (such as steam based power generation, central heating, cooking etc.).

Classification of Boilers

A). On the basis of furnace charging

B). On the basis of Pressure of steam generated

  • Supercritical
  • Sub-critical
  • High-pressure
  • Medium-pressure
  • Low-pressure

C). On the basis of position of furnace

  • Externally fired
  • Internally fired

D). On the basis of the position of the boiler

  • Horizontal
  • inclined
  • Vertical

E). On the basis of use

  • Marine Boilers
  • Stationary Boilers
  • Locomotive
  • Portable Boilers

F). On the basis of circulation of water

  • Forced Circulation
  • Natural Circulation

G). On the basis of relative passage of hot air and water

  • Fire tube boilers
  • Water tube boilers

H). On the basis of fuel firing

  • Gaseous fuel firing (eg LPG, LNG, PNG)
  • Liquid fuel firing (eg Furnace oil, Light Diesel Oil)
  • Solid fuel firing (eg Rice husk, Briquettes, Pet Coke, Wood, Coal)

I). On the base of the furnace

  • Dual furnaces
  • Single furnace

J). On the basis of Drums

Characteristics of a good boiler

  • All the parts should be available for cleaning and inspection
  • Scaling should not happen on heating surfaces
  • It should require low maintenance
  • It should acquire less floor space
  • It should have low vibrations
  • It should have low initial cost
  • It should have high combustion efficiency
  • It should have a high rate of heat transfer
  • It should have low running costs
  • Dismantling should be easy
  • It should have adequate safety interlocks
  • It should have low maintenance costs
  • Its starting and stopping should be quick
  • Installation should be easy
  • For a given fuel consumption it should have a maximum rate of steam generation

Applications of boilers

  • Thermal Power Plants
  • Sugar Plants
  • FMCG industry
  • Industrial plywood
  • Textiles
  • Food processing industry

Also read:

Featured image sources:

By I, Sir Iwan, CC BY-SA 3.0,

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